Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials

Functional outcomes for clinical evaluation of implant restorations

General Information

The functional outcomes related to treating patients afflicted with tooth loss are an important hallmark in substantiating prosthodontic intervention. The Oral Rehabilitation Outcomes Network (ORONet) conducted two international workshops to develop a core set of outcome measures, including a functional domain. The process followed the general format used in the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) workshops to develop consensus for clinical outcome measures in arthritis research, which included: developing a comprehensive list of potential outcomes in the literature; submitting them to a filter for validity, clinical discrimination, and feasibility; and ranking those measures meeting all the filter criteria for relative value. The search was conducted to include functional assessments of speech, swallowing, mastication, nutrition, sensation, and motor function as they relate to dental implant therapies. This literature review surveyed 173 papers that produced some result of these descriptors in the functional domain. Of these, 67 papers reported on functional assessments and further defined objective and subjective outcomes. Many of these results were patient-perceived improvements in function, while others were objective assessments based on established methodologies and instruments. Objective evaluations of masticatory function and speech may meet criteria for validity and discriminability for selected interventions, but are generally not feasible for routine use in clinical care settings. The current recommendation is to employ a well-validated survey instrument that covers mastication and speech, such as the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14, short form), recognizing that patient perceptions of function may differ from objective ability.

Bassi, F. Carr, A. B. Chang, T. L. Estafanous, E. W. Garrett, N. R. Happonen, R. P. Koka, S. Laine, J. Osswald, M. Reintsema, H. Rieger, J. Roumanas, E. Salinas, T. J. Stanford, C. M. Wolfaardt, J.


Int J Prosthodont
411 - 8
Further Study Information

Funding source(s):

Health Area

Disease Category
Dentistry & oral health

Disease Name
Dental implants

Target Population

Age Range


Nature / type of Intervention



Stakeholders Involved


Study Type

Systematic review of outcomes measured in trials

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