CRADLE Delphi study: expert Consensus Regarding core outcomes for enhAnced recovery after cesarean DeLivery studiEs

There is no consensus regarding which outcome measures should be used to evaluate enhanced recovery after cesarean delivery (ERAC) protocol success within research studies.

We aim to define a standardised core outcome set which can be used by researchers to evaluate ERAC protocol efficacy within future randomized controlled, observational and retrospective studies.


PI - Pervez Sultan
Co-Is - Brendan Carvalho, Carolyn Weiniger, Ron George, Kariem El-Boghdadly


Journal: Anesthesiology
Volume: 137
Issue: 2
Pages: 201 - 211
Year: 2022
DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000004263

Further Study Information

Current Stage: Completed
Date: November 2020 - December 2021
Funding source(s): Internally funded by Stanford University School of Medicine

Health Area

Disease Category: Pregnancy & childbirth

Disease Name: Maternity care

Target Population

Age Range: 18 - 120

Sex: Female

Nature of Intervention: Procedure

Stakeholders Involved

- Clinical experts

Study Type

- COS for clinical trials or clinical research


- Delphi process
- Semi structured discussion
- Systematic review

We will invite ERAC experts to participate in 2 rounds of Delphi questionnaires followed by a "round table" discussion to finalize a core outcome set.

Experts will be selected as follows:
Above investigators
Corresponding authors of the 12 published ERAC studies
All authors of a recent consensus statement published by the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology regarding ERAC
Each member of the ERAC society task force will be asked to recommend an obstetrician with expertise in the area
First and last authors of the ERAS society guidelines (Parts 1-3) surrounding ERAC, published in American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Corresponding authors of the ERAS society guidelines surrounding ERAC will also be invited to recommend another expert in ERAC, (with experience in evaluating / assessing impact of ERAC)
First and last authors of any published article / review identified in a literature search regarding ERAC